Dr Michael Flood

Masculine traditions still rule in study of Australian men


In a recent study of Australian men aged 18 to 30, traditional masculine views still hold true in this country.



Young men who conform to traditional definitions of manhood are more likely to suffer harm to themselves, and do harm to others, according to a new survey of Australian men aged 18 to 30.

The researchers surveyed 1,000 young men on their attitudes toward seven pillars of traditional manhood: self-sufficiency, toughness, physical attractiveness, rigid gender roles, heterosexuality and homophobia, hypersexuality, and aggression and control over women. These represent what we call the “Man Box”, or the ideals of manhood that can be both influential and restrictive to young men.

The men were asked about their perceptions of societal messages about manhood and their own endorsement of these messages.

Our findings showed that many young men remain greatly influenced by these societal messages of what it means to be a man. For example, young men were particularly likely to agree with statements that society expects men to act strong (69%), fight back when pushed (60%) and never say no to sex (56%).

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However, some traditional ideas seem to be dropping away. Few young men agreed that society tells them they should use violence to get respect (35%), straight men should shun gay men as friends (36%), boys shouldn’t learn how to cook and clean (38%), and men shouldn’t do household chores (39%).

There was also a consistent gap between social messages and personal ideals, with lower personal endorsement of every element of traditional manhood.

Still, a sizeable number of young men believed men should act strong (47%), be the primary breadwinners (35%) and fight back when pushed around (34%).

Fewer respondents agreed that men should have as many sexual partners as they can (25%), avoid housework and child care (23%) and use violence to get respect (20%).

In a particularly troubling finding, 27% of young men believed they should always have the final say about decisions in their relationships and 37% believed they should know where their wives or girlfriends are at all times.

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What other researchers have found

Our findings are consistent with other research on the societal impact of traditional masculine ideals.

First, there is a consistent gap between men and women when it comes to views of gender roles. Young Australian men are less aware than young women of sexism and more supportive of male dominance and violent attitudes toward women.

Research in the US has found that young American men are also less aware than young women of the harms of traditional masculinity.

Second, there is diversity among men. Young men have different ways of expressing their masculine identities, depending on their peer groups. There are also large variations among young men in their endorsement of sexism and violence.

Third, men are changing. While the “Man Box” survey is not longitudinal, other research points to shifts over time in men’s attitudes toward gender roles. Other studies have shown more young men supporting gender equality and rejecting violence against women, although there are also signs of regress and backlash.


The harms of acting like a “real man”

Conforming to ideals of traditional masculinity has a real cost, both for young men themselves and for the women and men around them.

Our findings show that being inside the “Man Box” – having a higher-than-average agreement with traditional masculine ideals – is bad for young men’s health.

According to our survey, young men in the “Man Box” were more likely than other men to have poor mental health (including feeling depressed, hopeless or suicidal), to seek help from only a narrow range of sources, and to be involved in binge drinking and traffic accidents.

We need to confront traditional masculine ideals; to engage men and boys in critical conversations about manhood; to embrace identities of their own making.

This accords with a large number of other studies that have found men who endorse dominant ideals of masculinity are more likely than other men to have greater health risks and engage in poor behaviours. They are more likely to consider suicide, drink excessively, take risks at work and drive dangerously.

Recent media discussions of “toxic masculinity” have emphasised that patriarchal notions of manhood are dangerous not only for men themselves but for those around them.

Our survey also bears this out. Young men who agreed more strongly with the ideals of the “Man Box” were six times as likely as other men to have sexually harassed women in the last month – making sexual comments to a woman or girl they didn’t know in a public place or online.

They were also more likely to have bullied other people in the last month, physically, verbally and online. And they were far less likely to intervene when other men were acting violently.

Again, these findings should not be surprising. Conformity to traditional masculinity is a well-documented risk factor in domestic violence. Men are also more likely to rape women if they are hostile towards women, desire sexual dominance, accept rape myths and feel entitled to women’s bodies.

Masculinity also is a significant contributing factor in male-to-male violence. Indeed, men’s violence against women and men’s violence against other men are interrelated, and both are shaped by the traditional ideals of masculinity.


Beyond the “Man Box”

There is an urgent need to promote change in the way we view masculinity in Australia. Three tasks are vital.

First, we need to raise awareness of the harms of the “Man Box”. And in doing so, let’s avoid a focus only on harms to men. We must also address how masculinity contributes to ongoing sexism and male privilege in society.

Second, we need to confront traditional masculine ideals and try to reduce their impact on society. We need to engage men and boys in critical conversations about manhood, encouraging them to embrace identities of their own making rather than conforming to constrained masculine scripts. We should also highlight how young men are changing and adopting diverse viewpoints on what it means to be a man.

Third, let’s promote healthy and ethical alternatives to traditional masculine ideals. Whether we call it “healthy masculinity” or something else, we need to promote ideals for boys’ and men’s lives that are positive, diverse and gender-equitable.


This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article here.


Dr Michael Flood

Dr Michael Flood is an Associate Professor and an ARC Future Fellow (2015 – 2018). His research agenda focuses on gender, sexuality, and interpersonal violence. Dr Flood’s research at present is focused in particular on interpersonal violence and its prevention, particularly with reference to men and masculinities. Dr Flood has published widely on topics including violence against women and violence prevention, men and masculinities, profeminist men’s advocacy, male heterosexuality, fathering, and pornography. He has made a significant contribution to scholarly and community understanding of men’s and boys’ involvements in preventing violence against women and building gender equality. Dr Flood has published 30 journal articles, 20 book chapters, two edited collections, 22 research monographs, and over 80 other publications. He is the lead editor of Engaging Men in Building Gender Equality (2015) and The International Encyclopedia of Men and Masculinities (2007). He is the co-founder and Co-Director of the Centre for Research on Men and Masculinities (CROMM), the first research centre in Australia focused on this field of scholarship. His research has attracted $1.7million of external funding. Dr Flood is also a well-regarded teacher. His teaching has received outstanding student evaluations and exemplary subject evaluations. In 2011 Dr Flood was awarded the Vice-Chancellor’s Award for Outstanding Contribution to Teaching and Learning (Faculty Early Career Academic Award). Finally, Dr Flood has an extensive record of community and professional engagement. He has contributed to social change campaigns, worked with sporting and military organizations, participated in international expert meetings, and shaped national prevention frameworks. Dr Flood has been involved in large-scale research and education projects with such organisations as VicHealth, the National Rugby League (NRL), the Australian Football League (AFL), and the Australian Defence Force (ADF). He has provided expert advice to the Australian Bureau of Statistics, the Human Rights Commission, White Ribbon Australia, Our Watch, and other organisations. He has contributed to agenda-setting frameworks for violence prevention practice and policy, including Preventing Violence Before It Occurs (2007), Respectful Relationships Education (2009), National Standards for the Primary Prevention of Sexual Assault through Education (2009), and Change the Story: A shared framework for the primary prevention of violence against women and their children in Australia (2015).

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